Traditions of the Kyrgyz people were being formed with the help of economic, trade, domestic and other relations with kindred and other tribes that were closely related to the geography of their ha...

After the coup of 19 March 1953 in the socio-political history of Iran there were fundamental changes: the powers of parliament were limited and the absolute power of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was...

In the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran are two countries that claim to leadership in the region. With a powerful resources and political potential these countries are the...

Law & Legal Issues


In Tajikistan, the deputies of the lower house of the national parliament approved amendments to the Criminal and Administrative Codes of the Republic, which introduce more stringent penalties for a number of types of road traffic offenses. For example, the administrative responsibility for driving while intoxicated or without license is replaced with criminal penalties if the violation is committed repeatedly. In addition, drivers who use somebody else's license plates will be prosecuted if the violation is committed repeatedly.



On June 17, the lower house of the Tajik parliament approved a new draft of the Labor Code of the republic. The draft law was developed in 2015 on behalf of President Emomali Rahmon. In late August 2015, it was for the first time submitted for discussion to the supreme legislative body of the republic.



On June 10, the Law “On electronic government” came into force in Uzbekistan. It provides for introduction and development of electronic public services. This document was originally adopted by the lower house of the national parliament in November 2015, and then approved by the upper house in December of the same year. Now, six months from the date of publication of the text of the new law in the Uzbek media, it finally came into force. The main purpose of the law is to regulate the relations that can occur in the field of e-government activities.



Under public pressure, the Kyrgyz parliament was forced to re-vote on the previously rejected draft law regarding introduction of criminalized responsibility for the Muslim rite of marriage with minors. The former decision of deputies caused a huge negative publicity in the republic, and many citizens even accused the deputies of “supporting pedophiles.” In addition, the Ombudsman of the country and representatives of human rights organizations urged the MPs to reconsider this draft law.



In the lower house of Kazakhstan's parliament, the Communist Party (CPPK) deputies have put forward the proposal to restrict the activities of companies engaged in network marketing in the territory of the republic. “In our country, network marketing companies have been year after year developing the so-called MLM. The more such activities expand, the more our people suffer. The network marketing is a concept for sales of various goods and services, and this process is based on creation of a network of independent distributors.


By autumn 2016, the Uzbek government intends to submit amendments to the law “On safety and quality of food” to the National Parliament of the Republic. These amendments provide for introduction of a ban on registration of any food product that contains genetically modified organisms. The text of the document involving introduction of these changes was published on the single portal of online public services of Uzbekistan on May 11, with the aim of public discussion.



In Uzbekistan, there has been put forward for discussion a new draft law providing for introduction of a number of changes to the current Criminal Code of the Republic and the Code of Administrative Responsibility. This project appeared on the Unified Portal of Public Services of Uzbekistan, providing for imposition of criminal penalties for the usage of UAVs in the Uzbek territory. According to the proposed amendments, violators of the law can be detained for 15 days or be sentenced to imprisonment for a term of 5-10 years.



On April 19, President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev signed the law “On lotteries and lottery activity.” This document clearly defines the procedure and conditions of lotteries, determines the rights and responsibilities of the lottery regulator, its functions including the monitoring of execution of the republic's gambling legislation. The document also identifies the obligations of lottery operators in terms of transparent and objective formation of prize funds. It also designates the requirements for lottery tickets, checks and receipts.



The European Union will provide a grant of €5.5 million to Kazakhstan with the aim of improving the national criminal justice system of the republic. National expert Saule Mektepbayeva announced the news was during the presentation of the EU project for criminal justice improvement. “Today we launch a large project that will last for three years and will be implemented with the support of the European Union. In other words, the main task is to ensure that the Kazakh criminal justice system finally becomes efficient and cost effective, with public security unaffected.


Turkmen Parliament has considered and adopted the new law “On civil service,” which aims to further improve the efficiency of state bodies. This document defines the institutional and legal framework of the public service, the procedure and conditions for realization of the right to public service in respect of Turkmen citizens. The law also regulates relations that arise as a result of civil service, and defines the status of civil servants.