224-651 AD - Sasanian dynasty rules Persia; Zoroastrianism is dominant religion.
636 - Arab invasion brings end of Sasanian dynasty and start of Islamic rule.
9th century - Emergence of modern Persian language (or Farsi), written using a form of Arabic script.
9-13th century - Decline of Islamic Caliphate; rise of Seljuk Turk dynasties.
1220 - Invasion by Mongol forces of Genghis Khan.
1501 - Shah Ismail I becomes first ruler of Islamic Safavid dynasty; Shi'i Islam declared state religion.