The tribes living in the mountains, in the valleys of the rivers within the territory of modern Turkmenistan were engaged in farming, herding and hunting in the III millennium BC. In the II millennium BC arose pottery production and metal processing, at the same time appeared the first permanent settlements. In I millennium BC irrigation canals were built, there were towns and a thriving trade.
In the history of Turkic peoples a special place occupies one work of the outstanding scientist-encyclopedist of the Middle Ages Mahmud of Kashgar "Divanu lugat at-Turk" ("Dictionary of Turkic dialects"). This three-volume edition "is in every sense of the word gold placers of the curious and keen observations over the phonetics, grammar and vocabulary of a number of Turkic peoples, a unique composition, brought to our time invaluable linguistic, ethnographic, folklore, geography, historical information about Hakansky ( Carahanid) Turks, Turkmens, Oguz, Yagma, Chigily, Kirghiz ".
It is possible to consider to the main sights of a city the Neutrality Arch (1998, 75 metres in height – it is the highest construction in Turkmenistan) with a gold statue of Turkmenbasha at the top, Presidential palace (the former building of Communist Party o in Turkmenia, 1950-1955), building of Medzhlis (the former complex of Ministerial council, 1954-1956), complex of Science Academy (1949-1953), Academic drama theatre of Mollanepes (1951-1958), monument Bajram-Khan, Lenin's (1927) square, palace of Mekan (1970-1974), building of National library (1964-1976), Musical school and Conservato
Independence Day of Turkmenistan — is the main national holiday of Turkmenistan Republic.
History and celebrating
Date for carrying out of the Independence Day of Turkmenistan was chosen not casually.
On 27th of October, 1991 the Supreme body of Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic passed the law «About independence and bases of a state system of Turkmenistan». After disintegration of the USSR the Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic became one of last Soviet Socialist Republics on the post-Soviet territory, proclaimed the state sovereignty.
The most part of the territory of Turkmenistan is in limits of Turanskaya lowland. The desert Kara Kum («black sand») occupies a median part of the republic. In the west prevail stony and rubble deserts, in the east – sandy deserts. Mountains and heights are located mainly in the southern part of the country. Only 3 % of the Turkmenistan area is suitable for the agriculture.
Ashgabat (Turkmen: Aşgabat, Persian: عشق آباد, Russian: Ашхабад, also Ashkhabad in transliteration from Russian (literally: "Lovely City") or formerly Poltoratsk between 1919–1927) is the capital and largest city of Turkmenistan, a country in Central Asia. It has a population of 695,300 (2001 census estimate), 2009 estimates around 1 million people in Ashgabat, and is situated between the Kara Kum desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range. Ashgabat has a primarily Turkmen population, with minorities of ethnic Russians, Armenians, and Azeris.
Turkmenistan is largely desert country with nomadic cattle raising, intensive agriculture in irrigated oases, and huge gas and oil resources. One-half of its irrigated land is planted in cotton, placing the country in the top 10-15 producers. It also possesses the world's fifth largest reserves of natural gas and substantial oil resources. Until the end of 1993, Turkmenistan had experienced less economic disruption than other former Soviet states because its economy received a boost from higher prices for oil and gas and a sharp increase in hard currency earnings.
Turkmenistan is an independent neutral country in Central Asia, located on the Eastern shore of the Caspian Sea. It borders Iran to the south, Afghanistan to the south and east, and Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan to the north.
Tools from the Stone-Age have been discovered along the Caspian Sea shore and near the modern port of Turkmenbashi, establishing the pre-historic presence of humans in the area that is today known as Turkmenistan. The remains of farming settlements in the Kopet-Dag Mountains date back 8,000 years. The ancient cultivators in this region used the mountain streams to irrigate their crops. They also survived by herding livestock and by hunting wild game.
At present, sea pipelines in Russia are considered to be the most effective and environmentally safe means of transporting natural gas through the areas of marine water, which is confirmed by the experience (subject to the provisions of the EIA) of design, construction and operation of the pipelines in the Baydaratskaya Bay, in Baltic ("Nord Stream") and Black ("Blue Stream" and "South Stream") seas.
"Great gas game" of the European Union, Russian Federation and Turkmenistan has reached the stage, where it is no longer about the detection of the winner, but it is a question of the many players’ existence. The deep crisis of the European Union together with outbreaks of civil clashes, threatening the existence of Asian dictatorships and directly threatening the regime of Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, make the most immediate problem for the implementation of any long-term projects.
Turkmen authorities reacted to the attention of foreign media to the political situation in the republic very painfully. At the same time the regime of Gurbangula Berdimuhamedov has a strict policy to preserve the monopoly influence on the minds of the country’s citizens, but he also uses the possibilities to spread the influence in the Turkmen communities outside the state.
Against the background of the Israeli officials’ statements on high alert for war with Iran and the IAEA report on the two-year efforts of the Islamic republic to develop nuclear weapons, the special significance was the Turkmenistan's position as the country that could be a crucial springboard for attack, or, conversely, the reliable rear of defense. It is known that for a long time Israel and Iran had mutual influence on Turkmenistan in order to win it over in the process of determining the question of war or peace.
Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov’s predictable and decisive victory at the presidential elections in Turkmenistan gave the foundation to the state officials to make the statements about outlines of the country’s future. The words of Ambassador of Turkmenistan in Uzbekistan Soltan Pirmuhamedov about radical change in the historical periods on separately taken east coast of the Caspian Sea look the most important among such statements.