Traditions of the Kyrgyz people were being formed with the help of economic, trade, domestic and other relations with kindred and other tribes that were closely related to the geography of their ha...

After the coup of 19 March 1953 in the socio-political history of Iran there were fundamental changes: the powers of parliament were limited and the absolute power of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was...

In the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran are two countries that claim to leadership in the region. With a powerful resources and political potential these countries are the...



He was born on the 14th of August, 1953 in the city of Krasnoturinsk in Sverdlovskaya Oblast, RSFSR. He is Russian.
His mother is Bobrova Antonina Ivanovna, a pensioner.
He graduated from the Energy Faculty of Pavlodar Industrial Institute (1975), he is an electrical engineer.
He is a candidate of technical sciences (1985). Thesis of his dissertation is "Optimization of power consumption modes of alumina production." He is an assistant professor (1987).
Also he is Co-author of two books, the author of 46 articles and publications.


In 1998 he graduated with honors from the Kazakh State Law University (KazSLU), and then he graduated from the magistracy of the same University [1]. He started his career as a teacher of the finance law in the Kazakh State University; in 2000 he was appointed to the position of rector on educational work in the Kazakh State Law University [1].
In 2000, he acted in a film «Troops landed" by the director Leila Aranysheva.


He is a speaker of the Mazhilis of the Parliament of the Kazakhstan Republic.

He was born in 1962, in Karaganda. He graduated from the Karaganda Polytechnic Institute. He is a doctor of Political Sciences.

After graduation he worked as an engineer, he was the head of the autocade "Karagandaoblgaz."


Water-Green Boulevard
On the main axis of the administrative center of Astana is located the pedestrian bridge, a well-known to the citizens as "Water-Green Boulevard" - the brainchild of the author's master plan for Astana of K. Kurokawa.



Day of State Independence of the Kazakhstan Republic is the main state holiday which is celebrated on the 16th of December annually. In honor of the National Holyday this day is declared a day-off in the Republic.
On the 16th of December, 1991 the Supreme Soviet adopted a law concerning the independence and state sovereignty of Kazakhstan. It was the last republic among all republics of the former Soviet Union what adopted independence.


Almaty is a solar, comfortable, city smothered in verdure with wide streets, beautiful buildings, numerous parks, squares and fountains. The most beautiful city at bottom of emerald ridges of Tien-Shan is called "garden city" not casually.


Indeed the Kazakh national cuisine reflects people essence, its history, culture and traditions. As hospitality was a distinctive feature of the Kazakh people for a long time, master of the house always accords a hearty welcome gives a place of honor to the visitors in his house. At first it is offered koumiss to the visitor– horse milk, shubat – the camel milk or airan – a milk of a cow. When it comes a time of the tea (with milk or cream) it is offered boorsoki – fried balls from the batter boiling in oil, raisin, irimshik and kurt – dry cheese and cottage cheese balls.


The Kazakhstan republic is not simply an open-air museum, but also the country which has fine natural sights, such as fanned by legends Lake Burabai in Kokshetauskaya area, the Alpine meadows of Zailiijsky Ala Tau, majestic landscapes of the Charyn river canyon.
One of the most beautiful cities of Kazakhstan is Almaty city. It is located at the mountains of Zailijsky Ala Tau; it pleases with the original architectural ensembles combining elements of national style with the newest building constructions. Near to the capital on square of 90 thousand hectares the unique reserve is located.


The majority of legends name Alash the founder of the Kazakh nation. And though any historical evidences about existence of Alash are absent, his name and these legends played an important unifying role. According to the archeological discoveries, in II–I thousands BC in the territory of Kazakhstan lived various nomadic people. The most ancient historical tribes concern east chud (ugry) in the north and the Asian Scythians (sacks) in the south.


c4000BCE Apples (Malus Sieversii) similar to modern day varieties began to appear around Almaty, Kazakhstan. These ultimately produced the Red Delicious and Golden Delicious in America. The Red Delicious was hybridized into the Fuji and the Empire. The Golden Delicious was hybridized into the Gala, the Jonagold, the Mutsu, Pink Lady and Elstar.
(WSJ, 7/3/03, p.A1)

800-300BCE The Scythians dominated the vast lands stretching from Siberia to the Black Sea. Those who roamed what later became Kazakstan and southern Siberia were known as the Saka.
(AM, 5/01, p.32)