Traditions of the Kyrgyz people were being formed with the help of economic, trade, domestic and other relations with kindred and other tribes that were closely related to the geography of their ha...

After the coup of 19 March 1953 in the socio-political history of Iran there were fundamental changes: the powers of parliament were limited and the absolute power of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was...

In the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran are two countries that claim to leadership in the region. With a powerful resources and political potential these countries are the...



At present, Afghanistan is a springboard for drug producers and terrorist groups in the eyes of the world community. However, historically, the role of this state in the world production of opiates was insignificant. The situation changed in the 1970s, when bans on cultivation of opium poppy were imposed in Turkey, Iran and Pakistan. Thus, the producers began to develop the territory of Afghanistan, where the ongoing socio-political crisis had created the necessary conditions for this type of illegal economic activity.


In late 2016, the media reported that Moscow had contacts with the Taliban. Special Representative of the President of Russia on Afghanistan Z. Kabulov confirmed that the Russian side had contacts with the Taliban. As the main arguments in favor of such a position of Moscow, Z. Kabulov named the fact that the Taliban is fighting against the same insurgents in Afghanistan whom Russian is bombing in Syria. Secondly, the Taliban has rejected the idea of ​​global jihad. Thirdly, their primary goal is to save the country from the occupation and establish an independent government.


After the announcement of the timetable for the withdrawal of troops from Afghanistan, in favor of the upcoming presidential elections, the United States were concerned about finding the causes and opportunities to maintain its presence in Central Asia and Afghanistan by any means. Perhaps this explains the increased tension that has been seen in Afghanistan recently.


The U.S. military air base in the capital airport "Manas" was opened in Kyrgyzstan after the terrorist attacks on shopping centers in New York in autumn of 2001. Americans convinced everyone that they were going to fight terrorism around the world, namely "Al-Qaeda" and its allies.


It’s known that for quite a long time so-called "Afghan issue" is the focus of several scientific conferences, symposia, "round tables", but any serious and effective results haven’t been achieved. The situation in Afghanistan was a critical one and it remains so to this day.


It’s clear that in the definition of democracy by ancient politicians in the statement that people are the arbiter of policy, and also in the modern definition of democracy that is based on the concept of "right", you can find a reflection of the reality of living in two historical periods that are different from each other. Despite all the sympathy for these definitions, some political systems based on these concepts, according to the will of the majority of people made serious mistakes and blunders.


Understanding of the concept 'recognition' by the parties also contributes to the strengthening and maintaining the progress of the peace; in other words, the concept of peace by its nature involves the concept of 'recognition'. This is one of the conditions for maintaining and further strengthening of the peace. Member-parties of the peace agreement should always recognize each other.


The establishment of a lasting and real peace in any country is connected to two factors: internal and external. As for Afghanistan, the intelligentsia of the country has always had a problem - what key issues may arise in the process of building peace in Afghanistan, what can help solve the existing problems, what can contribute to the peace building in the country?


The US President Barack Obama has repeatedly stated that the withdrawal of the US troops from Afghanistan will begin in 2011 and will be completed in 2014, but may this be done in the present circumstances, when the Taliban movement is still too strong to give up.


The influence of the Afghan problem on the countries of Central Asia