Traditions of the Kyrgyz people were being formed with the help of economic, trade, domestic and other relations with kindred and other tribes that were closely related to the geography of their ha...

After the coup of 19 March 1953 in the socio-political history of Iran there were fundamental changes: the powers of parliament were limited and the absolute power of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was...

In the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran are two countries that claim to leadership in the region. With a powerful resources and political potential these countries are the...



The religious situation in the Republic of Kazakhstan is undergoing tremendous changes due to the liberalization stages in this sphere (granting the right to freedom of religion and others). In recent years, one can observe intensification of ideologies of extremism and radicalism against the background of the spread of destructive religious movements of “export” nature.


Oil and gas condensate field "Karachaganak" (West Kazakhstan region, north-western part of Kazakhstan) was opened in 1979 under the Soviet government program to search for prospective oil fields. This field is considered to be one of the largest in the world. Its proven recoverable reserves are 1.2 billion tons of oil and about 1.35 trillion cubic meters of natural gas. "Karachaganak" provides about 49% of the total gas production and about 18% of the total liquid hydrocarbon production in Kazakhstan.

The Project’s Chronology


The European interest in the fuel and energy complex of the Republic of Kazakhstan focused primarily on oil and gas industry, clearly delineated by the mid 90s of last century. Other branches of Kazakhstan's energy sector have not become objects of any significant attention from the EU member states and European companies, with the exception of some attention of the European Union, France in particular, at the end of 2006 to the nuclear industry in Kazakhstan.
Oil and gas sector


The most dangerous manifestation of terrorism in the past two decades, in terms of the consequences of terrorist attacks and the complexity of their prevention is the use of suicide bombers in a number of terrorist organizations.


From January 1, 2010 Kazakhstan, Russia and Belarus announced the launch of the Customs Union (CU) of the three states, and from July 1 this integration association started working in full mode. The parties abolished customs barriers, which existed in mutual trade before, and kept the barriers only in trade with third countries.


The main purpose of Kazakhstan's foreign policy is to encourage the development of the country as a real player in the geopolitical arena. The country has been approaching to this purpose for several years, weaving between the giants and thus defending its national interests. Considering the features of foreign political activity of Kazakhstan, in the first place, we should note the special role of its chairmanship in the OSCE - a major international organization that required serious efforts of the Foreign Ministry and left its mark on all the actions throughout the year.


Presidential elections in Kazakhstan in 2011 are a very big step in comparison with the elections in 2005 and 2007, as the director of the Center for Social and Political Processes in the former Soviet Union, Alexei Vlasov considers. As for the differences in the reports of observers from the OSCE and the CIS, in his opinion, they are due to methodological differences.


After the collapse of the Soviet Union five independent states which embarked on democratization formed in Central Asia. Presidential republics, ruled by the permanent presidents (except Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan) were established there. Twenty years later we can speak about certain results of the development of these countries. So what was achieved by these young states? Kazakhstan is positioning itself as a leader in Central Asia, the president of the country repeatedly put forward the idea of creating "United Central Asia", which received no support.


During the years of independence Kazakhstan built economically strong and dynamically developing country. Currently, the country is consistently leading on the scale, pace and quality of many economic indicators in the CIS. Kazakhstan is ahead of other countries of the Commonwealth by the number of international initiatives per head. The efforts of the head of Kazakhstan to give brand new, modern qualities to the higher education in the country are really commendable.


Barack Obama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize which became one of the pleasant paradoxes of the XXI century. One side of the paradox is that in 2009 the Prize was awarded to a very young US president who had not been often noticed in peacemaking efforts. But the main thing here is that among the nominees there were such controversial candidates as Sarkozy, Berlusconi and Tony Blair. The first idea that comes to mind is that the Nobel Committee has become a sort of awarding department of the US administration.