Traditions of the Kyrgyz people were being formed with the help of economic, trade, domestic and other relations with kindred and other tribes that were closely related to the geography of their ha...

After the coup of 19 March 1953 in the socio-political history of Iran there were fundamental changes: the powers of parliament were limited and the absolute power of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi was...

In the Middle East, Saudi Arabia and the Islamic Republic of Iran are two countries that claim to leadership in the region. With a powerful resources and political potential these countries are the...

The Сontribution of the Intelligentsia to the Conflict in Afghanistan. Part Two.

Tuesday, November 8, 2011 - 15:43

Understanding of the concept 'recognition' by the parties also contributes to the strengthening and maintaining the progress of the peace; in other words, the concept of peace by its nature involves the concept of 'recognition'. This is one of the conditions for maintaining and further strengthening of the peace. Member-parties of the peace agreement should always recognize each other. Because the parties fulfill the scheduled program and have defined goals, for example, the participation in government activities, joint activities to implement common goals, promotion of their views, their vision and other rights that do not contradict the national interests. All of these rights must be recognized and established by the parties.
When the parties seek to limit the rights and the localization of each other, when one of the parties prevents the other party and restricts its activities, in violating its commitments under the Agreement, of course, there is a threat to the peace agreement, because the concept of "peace" never implies such things as to "ban", "limit", and «not to recognize". Even the party, whose activities are limited, will not take action at the expense of the peace, it is impossible to ensure a fair and real peace. A fair peace means a mutual respect and mutual recognition, and it is only achieved with respect for the rules of peace.
The peace is a conscious act. Activities to promote peace are based on the logic of awareness, since the opposing sides have definite goals and fight for their achievement. When the parties understand that the goals can not be achieved through war, when they have the character of group interests, when they are contrary to common goals, they understand the need for understanding peace and to find ways to reach the peace. Both parties recognize that war and mutual hatred are the reasons for disaster and ruin, and such situation calls the legality of their actions into question, they consciously begin to look for ways to achieve peace, protecting their legitimate interests, and they will eventually reach an agreement, to the peace, to the finding solutions of the problems, and, as a result, the crisis will give way to a lasting peace.
"We must strive to establish peace and create conditions for its consolidation, draw a line under the war, as a destructive phenomenon..." This statement does not contradict the moral aspirations, while there are forces that can create conditions in order to make the war impossible; it’s not so easy to complete the war. We have to change a person's character to make the war impossible" - Karl Jaspers said.
Taking into account everything mentioned above, the peace turns into social need, showing its true nature, it becomes strong and irreversible.
There is no doubt that peace and security are inextricably linked and they are a necessary condition for the existence of each other. If there is no peace, the security can not be guaranteed. Peace without security is meaningless, in other words, the real security is the brainchild of a fair peace.
Security means not only the absence of war. Any expert on the history of Afghanistan knows that during the last hundred years there hasn’t been any war, all the parts of the country were peaceful and quiet, especially during the reign of Abdurrahman Khan, Muhammad Nadir Khan, Zahir Shah, Daud and the first year of the PDPA government. Despite this, there was no security in the country, prisons were overcrowded by true patriots, and tens of thousands of citizens were victims of repression. Real security is possible when every citizen is provided with life and property security by the law, when personal liberties are guaranteed in all areas of the social life; no one has the right to dominate others.
Some members of the intelligentsia of the country that had been linked or sympathetic to the movement of "Taliban", especially after their arrival and approval of the authorities, claimed that the Taliban in Afghanistan established a complete security. On the territories ruled by the "Taliban", there is no war, in order to facilitate the recognition of the movement of the international community. Of course, such statement were largely political in nature, were a manifestation of ethnic solidarity. In fact, such statements were far from the truth. Despite the fact that there was no was on the territories ruled by the "Taliban", but this didn’t mean the establishment of full security. Hundreds of thousands of citizens were under constant threat, subjected to severe persecutions, and tens of thousands disappeared without a trial and judicial investigation.
In complete safety the citizens should not feel danger to themselves, their property, families, etc. Real security in Afghanistan is possible only in case of a fair and lasting peace. Only on the basis of the Constitution there will be provided the basic freedoms, democracy and justice, there will be created a government with the support and confidence of the people.
Of course, a powerful tool for achieving peace in the society is to address existing problems on the equitable basis. Where the justice prevails, there is always peace. In this respect, there is an inextricable link between justice and peace. This is the reason for mutual existence, which opens the way to the formation of social justice. To confirm the idea that justice is in fact a powerful tool for adoption and promotion the peace, we must determine the range of factors that threaten the peace and contribute to the social disintegration and the transition to crisis.
One of the major factors in the onset of chaos, division and dissent in the society, the strengthening of the social crisis and the acceleration of the decay of the society is the social oppression that is imposed by the members of society. All social revolutions were the result of disagreement with the policies of the ruling circles. When the oppression, exploitation and injustice are growing in the country, when living conditions become intolerable to the public and those who think that social oppression is blatantly evil, they will inevitably fight against this government for its destruction.
That's why the revolution is imminent and it’s the only way to solve the problems of the population. Naturally, the power or the system that arise from the ruins of the previous destroyed system will face many problems and difficulties. This will continue until the new government shows its efficiency and receives the support of the majority. Otherwise, it will face a deep crisis, with the bloody civil war. A striking example is Afghanistan.
In reality, the oppression is contrary to justice, the cause of hatred and social hostility and war, the main factor threatening and undermining the peace.
The whole history of our ancestors confirms that justice, service to people were the main conditions for the stability and the consolidation of different political regimes. On the contrary, the cruel oppression of the authorities has always been the cause of the collapse and disintegration of various governments. This can serve as a lesson for the present generation of political leaders of the Afghan society.
If the current leaders of Afghanistan really want to stop the war, the destruction and the division of the country, often changes of the governments, to establish and consolidate peace in the country, then in their political activities they should be guided by the principles of social justice, humanism, high responsibility to the people.
Thus, the justice is an essential prerequisite for the maintenance and consolidation of political regimes, the establishment of global security and peace.
In the current situation of Afghanistan, it may help to overcome the political and social crisis and to establish the peace in the country. Therefore, speaking against oppression, we can make the transition to a fair social and political system, update all spheres of our society, we can guarantee the preservation of peace in Afghanistan with the approval of just problem-solving techniques.
In today's Afghanistan, especially after the fall of the "Taliban", there are debates about the democracy and the sovereignty of the people, not only among intellectuals, but also among the majority of the population, many people consider democracy the cure of all social problems and illnesses, including means of promoting peace and stability.
The main challenge for us is to find an answer to the question: Is the democracy really the power of the people? Does the democracy always serve the interests of the most members of the society? Does the historical experience of democratic states prove that the democracy is the main method of struggle against oppression? Does society need other factors? How the democracy can create the conditions for a lasting peace?
Historical experience confirms the undeniable truth that the basis for democracy is the understanding of the meaning of voice of the people in determining its fate. It should be noted that there is a big difference between the ancient democracy and the modern democracy. Ancient democracy does not cover all sectors and groups of the population; it served specially privileged sections of the society - the noble people, traders and people with benefits. Slaves could not express their will.
The democracy in the modern sense should extend to all citizens, be taken as inalienable right of everyone, the right of every citizen to express his will, his opinions, regardless of ethnic, religious, linguistic and ideological affiliation and orientation.
The nature of the movement for freedom has some special features, and you need to learn the correct use of the democracy. In other words, at first, the movement for freedom means understanding of a freedom, which is one of the defining and concrete qualities of a human. The achievement of freedom also depends on people, on the collective intelligence, on their dedication and on the selfless work of individuals and leaders, whose interests often stand in conflict with the interests of all. But the transition from a political system based on the oppression of the masses to a democratic regime is the result of socio-political development and the course of history. The society based on democracy can achieve the required level of prosperity and development, if citizens are interested in preserving and consolidating their freedoms, if they strive for their voices and opinions to coincide with the social dialogue, show high responsibility in choosing their representatives, they take into account not only the interests of the others, but respect their opinions and views.
It should be noted that the political currents and the school created by the people, their work is a manifestation of the will of the people.
On the other hand, we should take into account the fact that the political machine does not work by itself, since it was created by human hands, it should be set in motion by these hands. It’s not necessarily for these people to be politicians. The work of the government machinery also depends on ordinary people, its operation does not mean mere consent of the people, but it’s a result of practical joint participation; the form and the structure of the machine should be responsive to human needs and capacities, which suggests the presence of three factors:
1. People, for whom were established government structures, should be interested in it, or at least, they should not create obstacles to the establishment and formation of this government.
2. They must do everything to keep this government.
3. They must be interested in the activities performed by the Government for them.
In addition, the ancient democracy was not yet the power of the people in the name of the people, as people didn’t participate in policy of the state through its representatives or directly. This right - to participate in the implementation of the policy of the country was a privilege of a narrow circle of politicians. The people acted as an arbitrator, and this right of the people was one of the features of the ancient democracy.
Some scholars, looking at the democracy from the perspective of religion, argue that Islam in the terms "bay'at" ("union", "contract") and "shura" ("council") means the democracy. In other words, the democracy is one of the manifestations of these concepts. In fact, despite the proximity of these concepts, there is a difference in the nature of these concepts.
"I strongly disagree with those who believe that the new concept of the democracy is a product of pre-existing notions of "bay'at" and "shura". I object to them because it is not possible, as the basis for a new concept of the "democracy" is the concept of "right" and in the past a people had no right to be an inhabitant of the planet Earth, but he was the liable person. Such a large gap exists between the new and the old world and it is impossible to replace with "bay'at" and "shura". Others, defending Islam, claim that because the concept of "bay'at" exists in Islam, then the term "democracy" also exists in a figurative sense. These people do not pay attention to the fact that the term "bay'at" existed among the Arab tribes in the pre-Islamic period to the period of "Jahiliyyah". The usage of the term of "bay'at" does not raise the prestige of Islam, in fact, the concept of "bay'at" is based on traditions, and the democracy is based on the concept of "right".

URL of this article: