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The Сontribution of the Intelligentsia to the Conflict in Afghanistan. Part Three.

Wednesday, November 9, 2011 - 09:27

It’s clear that in the definition of democracy by ancient politicians in the statement that people are the arbiter of policy, and also in the modern definition of democracy that is based on the concept of "right", you can find a reflection of the reality of living in two historical periods that are different from each other. Despite all the sympathy for these definitions, some political systems based on these concepts, according to the will of the majority of people made serious mistakes and blunders. The essence of this expensive price was the fact that every citizen that has authority and love, for the sake of this love, he had to be isolated, and in some countries he had to be the subject to persecution and harassment. On this occasion, Popper wrote: "It is naive to think that Aristide was expelled just for speaking out against Femistokol, as well as for his sympathy for his countrymen. It wasn’t like that. They wrote that Aristide was a favorite of the people, but in reality he was more than the people's favorite, and his isolation meant only that people did not want his dictatorship. This was the reason for his persecutions. Isolation of Femistokol was also made for this very reason. "
Other serious errors (projects) of ancient democracy were the condemnation and death of Socrates and the destruction of the island of Melos. As a result of this barbaric action all the men of the island were annihilated, and women and children were enslaved.
Another great tragedy of democracy in the twentieth century was a democratic affirmation of the law in March 1933. And as a result, the people's representatives gave Adolf Hitler emergency powers, which led to the end of fascism and unprecedented crimes of Fashists.
At the beginning of the twenty-first century, under the guise of democracy and with the support of the U.S. congressmen there was committed another crime - the aggression of the USA, Britain and their allies against the sovereign state of Iraq. Under the slogans of the struggle against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and Saddam Hussein's dictatorial regime, freedom and democracy to the Iraqi people, there was a robbery of the material and moral values of Iraq. All this was done as a result of duping of the international community.
Here we have to talk about how to free the democracy, what other structure can be created for this purpose, for the achievement of complete security, durable peace and social justice? In other words, we should answer the question, where the main artery of democracy is? How to organize a government in Afghanistan, in a country, where for more than three decades there was a bloody war, and its people know the value and importance of peace better than all other nations of the world and they also know how to save this peace? What structure is able to prevent the emergence of a new dictatorship and promote the development and expansion of democracy?
The experience of the two great national councils (Loya Jirga) to determine the conditions of the two-year transitional period in Afghanistan and the approval of the Basic Law was the main lesson in preventing a return to the establishment of totalitarian dictatorships and a vivid example of the participation of intellectuals in solving the tasks of ensuring transition to the democracy, guaranteeing the protection and promotion of peace and security in Afghanistan. Intellectual circles of Afghanistan, politicians, researchers and experts on Afghanistan have seen that before the first Loya Jirga, those who sought to take power into their own hands, with the help of foreign sponsors tried again to restore the royal authority in Afghanistan, using the opinion of representatives of various ethno-political groups, they wanted to usurp the supreme authority in the country in the hands of one of the nations of Afghanistan. Of course, the elected representatives of the people had no authority to accept such a huge responsibility, since the restoration of royal power could lead to the creation of a personal dictatorship. It was the great merit of those members of the intellectual circles of the country, who were taking part in the Loya Jirga and didn’t give the opportunity to restore a dictatorial regime, despite the efforts of their foreign backers, especially the USA and the UK. As a result, most participants did not favor the restoration of royal power.
During the Loya Jirga for discussion and adoption of the Basic Law there were attempts to restore its former glory of the Great Pashtun dictatorship under the slogan of creating a state with one nation and one language. They intended to adopt the Basic Law without the public discussion for one week. Defending the interests of all peoples living in Afghanistan, Loya Jirga delegates studied the draft of the Basic Law in details, and around this Law there were fierce discussions within 22 days of the Jirga. Most of the delegates proposed to change the content of the articles of the Basic Law, which gave the advantage to one nation, and instead of the presidential republic, in which there was a high probability of establishing a dictatorship of the individual, to adopt a parliamentary republic, a system, which was based on the idea of the government by the people and democracy. While discussing the project, the Jirga delegates were pressured by the supporters of the presidential system and their foreign backers, particularly the USA. Then it became clear that Hamid Karzai signed the text of the Basic Law, ignoring the confidence of the representatives of different peoples of Afghanistan and this version of the text was proposed by the authorities on the transfer of power to the representatives of one of the nations. This basic law will never get the approval of a majority of the peoples of Afghanistan and the implementation of its issues will have serious complications.
Returning to the essence of the problem, we should find an answer to the question - how democracy, the fundamental principle of which does not allow a system to oppress people, avoids excessive centralization of power and the appearing of dictatorship, is able to transfer political power to the hands of a neutral group to form the future leadership of the country?
In our opinion, that is the reason for the particular importance of its ability to transfer power to the new government without bloodshed. At first it seems that the issue of transfer of power does not really matter: through elections or by convening an authoritative meeting under the condition that any decision will be supported by a majority of voters or their representatives, or by its discussion in the Constitutional Court. The main and fundamental issue of changing the state is the illegitimate power and the threat to change it, the legitimate power - the election of the president or the prime minister.
A number of factors that inhibit oppression and isolation of influential people from the government are vitally important to the preservation and strengthening the order, security and peace in today's Afghanistan. In our opinion, such practice existed in the previous history of Afghanistan. The institute of power was called the Meeting of Elders (leaders). Especially if to remember that in the Basic Law of Afghanistan, it’s said that the assembly of elders (Loya Jirga) is the highest authority. Today or in the future this paragraph should be added that the Loya Jirga as the supreme power in Afghanistan has the authority, in cases of danger and desires to establish the dictatorship of the president, to remove him from power and give power to the elected leader. Only in this case, we can be unworried about the manifestations of oppression and usurpation of power and to create conditions for the development of the institution of democracy in the country.
According to many researchers, who study democracy, the main artery of democracy is the existence of an atmosphere, in which the thinkers and scientists can express their opinions, their critical attitude about the gaps in political and social sphere. This atmosphere of criticism is called «Vital Center», and others are called «Public sphere». In their view, the participation of citizens in politics and the struggle of parties are insufficient for the preservation and development of democracy. In other words, all the democratic conditions exist, but there is no "an atmosphere of criticism," there is no possibility of reconciliation of opponents and reformers. Thus, the democracy with all its attributes is necessary for the preservation, protection and promotion of peace, because only in the democratic society, the factors that threat the world are unable to undermine the foundations of the world.
We have already talked about the basic qualities of the intelligentsia as a freethinking, humanism, a willingness to advocate for justice and lawfulness, to protect the security, order and peace. Now we need to answer the question: What is the historical role and mission of the intelligentsia in modern conditions of Afghanistan, which is in need of stability, security and peace more than ever before. Intellectuals of Afghanistan should be in the forefront of the struggle for the happiness and welfare of all peoples of Afghanistan, they should actively seek ways to strengthen the real world, to lead the movement to consolidate the gains of the peace. In this direction, the first duty of intellectuals is to identify the key factors that may have a serious threat to peace, take effective measures to eliminate them, and to lead the struggle of the public masses.
The second task of intellectuals is to fight against national reticence, when there is a desire to preserve the benefits and privileges to certain ethnic groups at the expense of national interests of all peoples in the country. The people of Afghanistan must understand that happiness and prosperity is possible only in the conditions of national unity. It is necessary to develop a national culture instead of a narrow ethnic culture. Only in the conditions of preserving and increasing common cultural, historical and national values we can raise the prestige of our nation and state in the international arena.
Less important challenge facing the intellectuals of Afghanistan is to develop, approve and promote the philosophy of peace among population. The intelligentsia of the country should use all opportunities to implement this task. At the meetings, workshops, mosques, universities, schools and madrasah, in all public places we should promote the philosophy of peace, we should use the specific examples to show that all the achievements, progress and development are impossible without the atmosphere of peace, stability and security, without peace there is no happiness.
Another important direction of the activity of intelligentsia is the struggle for social justice as the main principle of maintaining social peace. As the intelligentsia forms the conscience of any society, it uses her own views, recommendations and conclusions to reform the society; it also advocates for social justice and thus participates in the preservation and consolidation of peace in the society.
Among the tasks facing intellectuals include activities to disseminate and promote the ideas of liberty, as any society can not develop, prosper and eliminate the existing shortcomings, if there is no freedom of opinion and views. On the other hand, only in terms of real freedom can be manifested the creative talent of society members who can be placed at the service of society. When there is no freedom, then there is no creativity of the masses, no progress, the risk of threats that could lead to chaos and crisis is increasing, and thus it undermines the social world. The whole history of Afghanistan witnesses about this, when for decades the government brutally suppressed all expression of discontent about the policies that was carried out. Therefore, the development of a culture of freedom can help to preserve social peace and stability, a task which is also faced by the intelligentsia of Afghanistan.
Today in Afghanistan the majority of people set hopes on the intelligentsia, as the country is experiencing one of the most crucial stages in its history. The peoples of Afghanistan, with the support of the international community put an end to the bloody war that lasted for more than a quarter of a century, but the country hasn’t entered a period of social and political stability yet. Today a high sense of responsibility for the fate of the country is required from everybody living in Afghanistan, because they have not overcome all the dangers threatening the peace yet. Unfortunately, foreign interference, without a thorough study of the features of internal life in Afghanistan, and one-sided approach to solving the major social and economic problems can worsen the situation and break the hard-won social peace in the country.
On the other hand, the provision of general financial aid to foreign countries and international organizations in Afghanistan, the lack of awareness among the population about the real aims of international aid can give rise to the thought about the inability of the Afghan Government to solve the problems of internal life of the country, and thus it would undermine people's confidence in national leadership and would lead to tensions within the country.
On this basis, we must emphasize that the responsibility of intelligentsia is increasing under current conditions of Afghanistan, by its conviction, its vision, its activities for the benefit of society it must lead the country out of its present precarious situation, to make everything possible for the achieved peace in Afghanistan to become strong and durable.

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