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The Сontribution of the Intelligentsia to the Conflict in Afghanistan. Part One.

Monday, November 7, 2011 - 17:05

The establishment of a lasting and real peace in any country is connected to two factors: internal and external. As for Afghanistan, the intelligentsia of the country has always had a problem - what key issues may arise in the process of building peace in Afghanistan, what can help solve the existing problems, what can contribute to the peace building in the country?
The roots of a lasting peace are related to the practical solution of economic, political, social, cultural, religious, ethnic and other contradictions in Afghan society. In other words, until there are still unresolved contradictions, factors that threaten the world, it will be impossible to establish a lasting peace.
Afghanistan is a multiethnic country; it’s a point of contact between the geopolitical and other interests of large countries and world civilizations. Its geopolitical, geoeconomic and geostrategic positions were the reason for the major countries of the world, the great powers to always regard their strategic goal to be the seizure of Afghanistan, its submission; they wanted to use this country to solve its problems in the region. It is for this reason the major colonial powers have repeatedly committed armed attacks on Afghanistan and had long wars for many centuries. History shows that the great states led cultural expansion together with the military-political attack, because we know that any country can not be seized by military and political means, until its culture is captured.
As a result, the military expansion became a national cause for continuation of war against the aggressors; the war continued, until the "winners" got aware of threats to their security and they were forced to leave Afghanistan. The truth of such statement is confirmed by the centuries-old history of Afghanistan.
Great states have always used the weakness of Afghanistan and its political, social, economic, religious and other contradictions that existed in the Afghan society. Therefore, they relied on a single ethnic group, leaving other ethnic groups without the right to participate in the management of the state, they shared some of the ethnic groups on the majority, and the others were shared on the minority. Giving great benefits to one nation, and thus they retained the internal tensions between the ethnic groups of the country. This factor should have contributed to the aggressive plans of aggression.
The bloody war of Afghanistan that lasted for more than three decades is a clear evidence of such statement. If the first ten years of the war were the result of the military-political presence of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, then the other two decades were the result of using the ethnic conflicts that existed within the Afghan society, the bloodiest period of the war had only ethnic coloring.
The fact that ethnic tensions manifested more clearly than the other contradictions of internal life of the country, and they played a more important role than in the neighboring countries of Afghanistan, was due to the factors that influenced the political situation in Afghanistan in the past two centuries.
After the death of Nadir Shah, his military commander, Ahmad Shah Durrani, succeeded to create a new state in the eastern part of the collapsed empire of Nadir Shah, with the center in Kandahar, in 1747 with the support of the Afghan tribes. The Jirga of Pashtun tribes recognized Ahmad Shah as a Padishah. From the earliest days of the state of Ahmad Shah Durrani in 1747 and until the fall of the republican regime of Daoud the sovereignty of Afghanistan belonged to the Pashtun tribes, except the period of the reign of Habibullah Khan Kalakan (1929).
The monopoly on power by one of the ethnic group contradicted the historical interests of the country which was the home for more than 30 nationalities and ethnic groups, and the deprivation of rights to participate in the management of the state for other ethnic groups, the political, social and economic benefits to only the Pashtun tribes became the main factor of ethnic conflicts, and it gradually paved the way for the formation of a crisis in the political and social life of the society.
In the society where more than 70% of the population are deprived of government guarantees and benefits, but these people still continue paying various taxes, perform military service, are deprived of their historical lands that were confiscated by the state and presented at the disposal of the Pashtun tribes, of course, there are factors that contribute to the maintenance of crisis situations.
The domination of the reaction medieval system, inaccessible to the fundamental rights and freedoms - of speech, press, of the majority of population, was another factor of the increasing tension in the society. The fall of the state system based on the exclusive domination of tribal relations led to the collapse of the socio-political system of the state, increased the crisis of the entire system of the state. That is why the ethnic tensions, are deeply rooted in Afghan society. It was the reason for ethnic contradictions to take roots in the life of Afghan people.
In the area of state policy, in the sphere of cultural life were also taken steps that helped to preserve inter-ethnic tensions. During the last hundred years, the government systematically pursued a policy of the exclusion the Dari language out of state offices and the introduction of the Pashto language. Dari language was traditionally used for centuries in all spheres of public life of the state, and this language was used for creation the centuries-old culture of the peoples of Afghanistan. The policy of the violent Pashtunization also strengthened enmity and hatred between the peoples of the country, hastened the crisis processes in Afghan society.
The struggle against the regime of Rabbani, the formation of the military-political organization called "Taliban" mainly from the Pashtun tribes, the Taliban massacre of Hazaras and Uzbeks in the central and northern parts of the country, large losses of fighters of the movement of "Taliban" in the green areas of the province of Parwan and Kapis, the massacre of Taliban in the northern provinces, especially in Mazar Sharif, and many other things were a clear indication of ethnic conflict in Afghanistan. The joint struggle of the international community with the United Islamic Front of the Salvation in Afghanistan against the regime of "Taliban" after the events of September 11, 2001, the fall of the Taliban regime, and the calling and the passage of the Bonn conference, the formation of the coalition government headed by Hamid Karzai, in essence, were the most important acts of compromise and accommodation. However, the reluctance of the international community and the leaders of the coalition government to solve the problems of Afghanistan pose a threat to the achieved peace agreements, because there were not eliminated the causes generating contradictions in Afghan society, but also in comparison with previous years, the situation got more complicated.
Unfortunately, the leadership of the White House learned nothing from the bitter experience of intervention in the case of Afghanistan and of the solution of ethnic problems in the former Soviet Union, but it deliberately continued the same policy. Americans re-enact the "ethnic card", and further aggravate the situation.
The meetings held in the Loya Jirga on the development and adoption of the draft of the Basic Law, the fierce debates around the draft of the Basic Law, despite the attempts of the U.S. representatives to influence the leaders, thousands of people demonstrating in Kabul in April 2004, who accused Hamid Karzai and his team in unwilling to solve the problems of ethnicity, the assignment of responsibility to the head of a coalition government and his team in inciting to inter-ethnic clashes in the provinces of Herat, Dzhuzdzhan and Balkh, the murder of the Minister of Civil Aviation and Tourism, and many other things indicative of the persistence and intensification of ethnic and sectarian conflicts in today's Afghanistan that pose a serious threat to peace and create instability in the society.
In today's Afghanistan, on the shoulders of the intelligentsia of various peoples of the country lies a great responsibility - a comprehensive analysis of the situation in the country based on historical, cultural, religious and ethnic values of the peoples of the country, to put an end to confrontation, to contribute to the further preservation and promotion of peace as the main condition for the renewal of all spheres of public life. From the perspectives of building and maintaining peace, at first you must understand the peace as a social necessity, to ensure security in the country, to carry out general disarmament of the military-political groups and the population, to consistently organize the elections of the governments at the provincial, county and local level. The main condition for the consolidation of power is that it should be based on the will of the people of the country. For over three decades in Afghanistan there was the terrible bloody war, the country suffered enormous material and moral losses. Naturally, the people of Afghanistan have great hopes for peace, the establishment of normal peaceful environment, the overcoming the effects of a deep crisis that covers the fundamentals of all spheres of society.
The protection and the preservation of peace is possible, first of all, if it is understood as an important and necessary phenomenon in public life, and secondly, we need to examine the connection of peace with other categories and phenomena in public life such as security, justice, democracy, freedom, rule of law, etc.
The peoples of Afghanistan, especially the intelligentsia, clearly understand a huge historical and political significance of the issue of conservation and protection of the peace. The long-lasted deep crisis, which covered all areas and foundations of the society, has become an obstacle to the development of the country. When Afghanistan was in the conditions of war, other countries in the region, Afghanistan's neighbors, who were almost at the same level of development, had serious socio-economic achievements, allowing them to defend their interests in relations with the world powers. The country was forced to obtain a guarantee of neighboring countries for preserving political power, thus it didn’t only miss the historic moment, but lagged behind neighboring countries for some decades. From the perspective of the cultural life the country has lost the rich heritage that was accumulated during thousands of years. Cultural values that had universal significance were destroyed or exported outside Afghanistan and were exhibited at major auctions of the world for the historical values. From the perspective of the unity of the nation, there was a deep split, the alienation of the nation, which led to a crisis of the national idea.
That's why in the condition of today's Afghanistan the problem of awareness of the need to conserve and find ways to achieve and to observe the principles of peace is crucial. Today we must say that in Afghanistan both sides reached an agreement on peace and a peaceful environment was established in the country, which requires compliance of the conditions that are necessary and conducive to further preservation and consolidation of the peace. To do this, at first there is the need to realize that the world is the philosophical and dialectical notion. If you look at the world from the perspective of dialectical philosophy it turns out that it is impossible to achieve peace, not taking into account the interests of the parties interested in the peace. In other words, only then you can preserve and strengthen peace, when the parties are interested in achieving and maintaining peace, they will have common goals and interests. If one party is interested and strives for peace, and the other party does not strive for peace, it is impossible to achieve and maintain peace. So, the recognition of this need is essential and compulsory condition.
The experience of war and social upheaval has confirmed that for the country's involvement in the bloody war we should blame the current governments of these countries, the population or the opposition, opposing this government. When politicians forget about social justice, put their own interests above national interests, strengthen the exploitation and oppression of their people, and thus want to strengthen their power, oppositional figures start to fight against such government in order to liquidate it, and as a result of it the public order is disturbed, the peace gives way to confrontation, war and crisis.
War is the worst evil. Material damage of the war is poverty and economic chaos that are a consequence of the influence of the threatening factors of war in the condition of peace. The moral damage of the war - is "the anomie", "the destruction of all good", "the emergence of huge obstacles to morality" and the destruction of freedom itself. As the external threats will help increase the pressure from inside".
In the consolidation of the achieved peace the important role has the devotion to peace of the contracting parties, in other words, the parties-signatories of the agreement of the peace must fully support the implementation of the peace agreement, and they should recognize the peace as a fundamental condition for social development. Otherwise, the achieved peace won’t be lasting, and the country will be involved in the chaos and war again.
That is why, when we talk about peace, the particularly relevant is the moral principle - the dedication of the parties to the peace. Of course, the parties should be guided by national interests; the peace agreement must be based on the will of the people. Only in this case, the parties will be faithful to their commitments, will respect each other and help to preserve and strengthen the peace.

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